Vincent had only a few friends in the small town of Arles and the postman Roulin and his family were among those few.  Joseph Roulin, the family patriarch whose portrait Vincent had captured in July of 1888, lived around the corner and up the street from Vincent’s yellow house. He mentions in a summer letter how he hoped to one day paint their newborn if the family would only sit for him.  In December of that year, he was pleased to announce that he had finally completed portraits of each member of the family, including the now five month old baby Marcelle.   In this canvas, Madame Augustine Roulin poses her baby as Vincent makes the child the focus of the composition.  He shades the mother Roulin into the background  and side of the view (aside from her centered and steadying hands on the swaddled Marcelle).  By selecting Compare, one can see in another similar portrait of mother and child he paints a week or two later, Vincent has the time to better proportion his subjects and the poses look more natural.  The related items are the other members of the Roulin family.
Roulin was not a mailman whom Vincent would see every day, rather he worked at the train station as the “Entreposeur des Postes” and lived nearby.  He saw in Roulin the fiery political stance of his old friend Pere Tanguy, the socialist paint supply shop owner to the post-impressionists back in Paris.  Vincent drank absinthe and wine by night in the cafe around the corner from his rented yellow house and the postman Roulin was a regular customer of Madame Ginoux, Vincent’s landlord and manager of the cafe.  The two struck up a friendship deeper than most for Vincent and it was Roulin who helped him after the incident with Gauguin in late December and the mutilation of his ear.  Roulin stood at Vincent’s side when most of Arles shunned and ridiculed the prickly “red haired Dutchman” painter who had come to their ancient roman city with his eccentric ways.
  Vincent is being influenced at the time he paints baby Marcelle Roulin by the recently arrived Gauguin and his young painting friend from Cormon, Emile Bernard and their pursuit of symbolism.  Mother Roulin is mystically portrayed with exaggerated coloring steering away from realism in the portrayal.  In the coming months, his letters to brother Theo show Vincent gave up this imaginative/recollective path to capturing the essence of his subject as being too dangerous mentally.  His canvases from Saint Remy and later Auvers Sur Oise show a movement back towards using varying brushstrokes and shapes, color combinations and thickness of paint application to portray what he saw and felt.  
My dear Theo,
On my side, too, it’s more than time that I wrote to you with a rested mind for once. Thanks first of all for your kind letter and for the 100-franc note it contained. Our days pass in working, working always, in the evening we’re worn out and go to the café before retiring to bed early. That’s our existence. Naturally it’s winter here too, although the weather still continues to be very fine from time to time.   But I don’t find it disagreeable to try to work from the imagination, since that permits me not to go out. Working in the heat of a stove doesn’t bother me, but only I’ve spoiled that thing I did of the garden at Nuenen and I feel that habit is also necessary for works of the imagination. But I’ve done the portraits of an entire family, the family of the postman whose head I did before – the man, his wife, the baby, the young boy and the 16-year-old son, all characters and very French, although they have a Russian look. No. 15 canvases You can sense how in my element that makes me feel, and that it consoles me to a certain extent for not being a doctor.
I hope to persevere with this and be able to obtain more serious sittings, which can be paid for with portraits.  And if I manage to do this entire family even better, I’ll have done at least one thing to my taste and personal.
At the moment I’m really in the shit, studies, studies, studies, and that’ll go on for some time yet – such a mess that it breaks my heart – and yet that’ll give me neatness when I’m 40. From time to time a canvas that makes a painting, such as that sower, which I too think is better than the first one.
If we can withstand the siege, a day of victory will come for us, even though we wouldn’t be among the people who are being talked about. It’s rather a case of thinking of that proverb, joy in town, grief at home.
What can you expect? Supposing that we still have a whole battle to fight, then we must try to mature calmly. You’ve always told me to do more quality than quantity. Now, nothing is preventing us from having a lot of studies classed as such, and consequently not having a whole heap of things for sale. And if sooner or later we’re obliged to sell,  then selling at a slightly higher price the things that can hold their own from the point of view of serious research.
I think that – in spite of myself – I won’t be able to prevent myself sending you a few canvases shortly, say within a month. I say in spite of myself, for I’m convinced that the canvases gain from drying right through here in the south, to the point where the impasto is thoroughly hardened, which takes a long time – that’s to say a year. If I restrain myself from sending them that would certainly be best. For we don’t need to show them at the moment, I’m well enough aware of that.
Gauguin works a lot – I very much like a still life with yellow background and foreground. He’s working on a portrait of me which I don’t count as one of his undertakings that don’t come to anything.  At present he’s doing landscapes, and finally he has a good canvas of washerwomen, even very good as I see it.
You should receive two of Gauguin’s drawings in return for 50 francs which you sent him in Brittany. But old motherBernard simply appropriated them. Speaking of indescribable stories, this is indeed one. I think that she’ll give them back though in the end. Beware of the Bernard family, but you should know that in my opinion Bernard’s work is very fine and that he’ll have some well-deserved success in Paris.
Very interesting that you met Chatrian. Is he blond or dark? I’d like to know that, since I know the two portraits.  In their work, it’s above all Madame Therèse and L’ami Fritz that I like.
As regards L’histoire d’un sous-maître, it seems to me that there’s more to find fault with than seemed possible to me at the time.  I think we’ll end up spending our evenings drawing and writing, there’s more to work on than we can do.
You know that Gauguin has been invited to exhibit at the Vingtistes. His imagination is already leading him to think of settling in Brussels, which would indeed be a means of finding himself in a position to see his Danish wife again. Since he has some success with the Arlésiennes in the meantime, I wouldn’t consider that as being absolutely without consequences.  He’s married and doesn’t much appear to be, in short I fear there may be an absolute incompatibility of character between his wife and himself, but naturally he’s more attached to his children, who judging from the portraits are very beautiful.
We, on the other hand, aren’t too gifted in that respect. More soon, a handshake for you and for the Dutchmen.
Gauguin will write to you tomorrow, he’s waiting for a reply to his letter and sends his warm regards.

To Theo. Arles, on or about Saturday, 1 December 1888

************************************************************************************************************************************* Painting, Oil on Canvas Arles: November – December, 1888 The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, New York, United States of America, North America F: ;491, ;JH: ;1638